In many types of construction and commercial projects, one must drill into the ground. For example, this is how tons of petroleum oil and water are brought to the surface so they can be processed for use. In addition, the building industry uses drilling for setting anchors and supporting foundations and many other types of structures. The scientific community often employs special drilling machines for taking core samples deep in the earth and rock drilling equipment is often needed because of the terrain.
Many kinds of drilling rigs are used to bore through rock and hard surfaces. These rigs may be classified by one or several characteristics.
Rock drilling equipment can be powered in several ways:
* Mechanical – usually large diesel motors are used to power the drill via a transmission, clutch, and torque converter drive system.
* Hydraulics – utilizes the power of compressed liquid within a system
* Steam – now obsolete, steam engines were a large part of 19th and early 20th Century excavation.
* Pneumatics – the power of air pressure (like when you send a special tube to the bank teller at the drive in banking service).
* Electricity – electric motor power from onsite generators
Drill Pipes (Height)
Standard rock drilling equipment can utilize one, two, three, or four drill pipes. This will depend on the application.
Drill Rotation Methods
Modern rock drilling equipment can use one of several types of drill rotations, such as:
* No rotation at all – employs a direct push motion.
* Track drilling – The drill is rotated from the top by a motor capable of moving along a track.
* Rotary table drilling rig – utilizing bottom drive technology, the drill string rotates from the bottom and the force of the rotation drives the drilling process.
* Hammer drill – by employing both percussion and rotation, rock drilling equipment can be very effective in the hardest of surfaces.
* Sonic drilling – uses the force of vibration
* Reverse circulation – this method works in the opposite direction of standard drilling. The main purpose is to bring drilled materials to the surface during the process of drilling. The drill bit acts as a screw conveyor while it drills.
Reverse rotation drilling is one of the most cost effective methods used today. However, the process is very slow but can penetrate as far as 1640 feet (500 meters) or more through some of the hardest rock materials.
There are many other kinds of rock drilling equipment in use today, and your equipment provider can show you all of your options.